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CAM Sensor Format
0.016 to 1 Megapixel
CAM Pixel Size
8 to 24 μm
CAM QE Quantum Efficiency
95% (EM gain significantly reduces QE)
CAM Gain
1000 a.u. [1]
CAM Readout time
> 50 fps (> 500 for low pixel EMCCDs) Fast
CAM Readout Noise
Extraordinarily low (<1 e- rms) [2]
CAM Spurious Noise / CIC
0.005 a.u. [1][4]
CAM Dark Noise
0.001
CAM EM Noise
1.41x with EM gain (effectively halves the QE) [5]
CAM Binning /Sub-array
Available for most cameras to increase readout speed, enabling faster frame rates [8]
CAM Low Signal Behavior
High Sensitivity (S/N > 1) At typically 1-40 photons per px [1]

Outperforms ICCD due to higher QE and lower noise [1]

Ideal for for extremely low light applications (< 40 photons [11]) that require absolute raw sensitivity at respectably fast frame rates [5]
CAM Advantages
Most models switchable to CCD to achieve CCD performance at higher signals [1][9]

Single Photon Sensitive [1][10]

Higher QE may enable the EMCCD to outperform the ICCD [1]
CAM Disadvantages
No nano or picosecond gating (microsecond gating available on some recent interline EMCCD sensors) [4]

Multiplication noise

Limited exposure times [3]
CAM Application
Faster frame rates and/or ultra-sensitivity [9]

Well for low light levels [1]

Single photon counting
CAM Price
Less expensive to manufacture than intensified CCDs [10]
CAM References

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